Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The first START treaty, START I, was signed in 1982 by the US and USSR and stipulated the reduction of their arsenals of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), the intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs), submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and heavy bombers to fixed levels. Whereas the NPT lacked a means of enforcement, this treaty gradually led to a drawdown from MAD (mutual assured destruction) of the Cold War. A second treaty, START II, was signed in 1993 and included such provisions as banning the use of MIRVs, but it too lacked a means of enforcement and neither the US nor the USSR reduced their nuclear arsenals. Negotiations for START III began in 1999, but unfortunately no treaty has been signed. Although both countries have reduced their nuclear stockpiles, many problems still remain, such as a large increase in MUF.

The Shadow Moses Incident is set to take place on the night before START III is to be signed.